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From Steve Wellers research

From Steve Wellers research
From Steve Weller 

As part of my research looking at microwave radio frequencies and whether that have the propensity to cause biological harm I have been collecting and evaluating studies over the last 3 years. I have purposely listed only positive studies (those that show biological effects) to demonstrate that not all “swans are white” as some scientists and industry representatives would have us believe. The evidence provided below demonstrates the current view held by many people that RF emissions below basic restrictions set by RF Standards and International Guidelines are safe is in fact refutable and falsifiable. Most of the studies listed below have set exposures that are within ICNIRP and therefore Australia’s RF basic restrictions. A summary of the effects and possible health implications is provided at the end of the document.

Studies (~2012 – to present day)
800MHz – 2100Mhz Microwave Radiation Studies (typically mobile phone frequencies)
1. In vitro effect of cell phone radiation on motility, DNA fragmentation and clusterin gene expression in human sperm. Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU) gene expression. There was a significant decrease in sperm motility, sperm linear velocity, sperm linearity index, and sperm acrosin activity, whereas there was a significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation percent, CLU gene expression and CLU protein levels in the exposed semen samples to RF-EMF compared with non-exposed samples in OAT>AT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05). (21 Apr 2015) [DD, EA, GE, SE]

2. Can prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field affect the morphology of the spleen and thymus, and alter biomarkers of oxidative damage in 21-day-old male rats? We investigated the effects of a 900 Megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF), applied during the prenatal period, on the spleen and thymus of 21-day-old male rat pups. Compared to the control group, thymus tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in the group exposed to EMF, while glutathione levels were significantly decreased. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were observed in splenic tissue of rats exposed to EMF, while a significant decrease occurred in superoxide dismutase values compared to controls. Transmission electron microscopy showed pathological changes in cell morphology in the thymic and splenic tissues of newborn rats exposed to EMF. (19 May 2015) [BI, CI , EA]

3. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO 2G AND 3G CELL PHONE RADIATION ON MICE TESTIS – A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Following chronic exposure of 2G and 3G cell phone radiation in mice, there was significant reduction of animal weight at first, second and fourth month. The mean testis weight and volume of 2G and 3G radiation exposed mice were significantly reduced in the first three months. The comparison between 2G and 3G exposed groups, showed no significant changes in mean body weight, mean testis weight and mean testis volume. Chronic exposure to ultra-high frequency radiation emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone could cause microscopic changes in the seminiferous epithelium, reduction of serum testosterone level, reduction in the number of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. (Feb 2015)   [BI, CI, EA]

4. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system. The rats were divided into two groups of six rats. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days. The control group was not given any exposure to the electromagnetic fields. After the completion of the electromagnetic wave application, the auditory brainstem responses of both groups were recorded under anesthesia. The degeneration of cochlear nuclei was graded by two different histologists, both of whom were blinded to group information. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema in the group exposed to the electromagnetic fields compared to the control group. (2 Apr 2015) (AD, CI)

5. Effect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and gene expression of their key regulating enzymes in brain of Fischer rats. Animals were exposed to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz microwave radiation for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week) with respective specific absorption rates as 5.953 × 10-4 and 5.835 × 10-4 W/kg. Results showed significant reduction in levels of DA, NE, E and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals. In addition, significant downregulation in mRNA expression of TH, TPH1 and TPH2 was also observed in microwave-exposed animals (p < 0.05). (12 Feb 2015)  [BI, GE]

6. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. In all exposure groups (2-4), the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration was significantly increased in samples with a distance of 0-5 cm to the field source compared to the control group.
Cell viability was significantly reduced in group 2 (900 MHz) and 4 (2450 MHz) at distances of 0-5 cm and in group 3 (1800 MHz) at distances of 0-25 cm compared to the control group.
The generation of reactive oxygen species was significantly increased in all exposure groups in samples with a distance of 0-5 cm to the field source in comparison to the control group.
Apoptosis was significantly increased in groups 2 and 3 at distances of 0-10 cm and in group 4 at 0-5 cm compared to the control group.
The enzyme activities of caspase-3 and -9 were significantly increased in all exposure groups in samples with a distance of 0-5 cm to the field source when compared to the control group. (19 Feb 2015) [AP, CA, EA, OS]

7. Cognitive Impairment and Neurogenotoxic Effects in Rats Exposed to Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation. Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to MWR for 180 days at 3 different frequencies, namely, 900, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz. All the rats were tested for cognitive function at the end of the exposure period and were subsequently sacrificed to collect brain. Level of HSP70 was estimated by enzyme-linked immunotarget assay and DNA damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay in all the groups. The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on (5 March 2015) [BM, CS, DD, EA, MR, OS]

8. Exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for one hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis. EMF group rats exhibited vacuoles in seminiferous tubules basal membrane and edema in the intertubular space. Seminiferous tubule diameters and germinal epithelium thickness were both smaller, and apoptotic index was higher, in the EMF group than in the other groups. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione values in the EMF group decreased significantly compared to those of the control group. The results show that exposure to 900-MHz EMF causes alterations in adult rat testicular morphology and biochemistry. (19 March 2015) [BI, CI, EA]

9. Cognitive Impairment and Neurogenotoxic Effects in Rats Exposed to Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-intensity microwave exposure on cognitive function, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and DNA damage in rat brain. The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain. (5 March 2015) [BM, DD, EA]

10. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory  (2015)  [BI, EA,MR]

11. Melatonin exerts certain antioxidant effects in the liver of rats exposed to microwaves, by diminishing the intensity of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to microwaves caused an increase in malondialdehyde after 40 (p < 0.01), protein carbonyl content after 20 (p < 0.05), catalase (p < 0.05) and xantine oxidase activity (p < 0.05) after 40 days. Increase in deoxyribonuclease I activity was observed after 60 days (p < 0.05), while deoxyribonuclease II activity was unaffected. Melatonin treatment led to malondialdehyde decrease after 40 days (p< 0.05), but surprisingly had no effect on other analyzed parameters. The lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in group 3 (exposure to microwaves) (2015)  [EA, OS]

12. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeable channel and gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). Some reports have indicated that non-ionized electromagnetic radiation (EMR)-induces heat and oxidative stress effects. human breast cancer cell lines were divided into A, B, C and D groups as control, 900, 1800 and 2450MHz groups, respectively. Cells in Group A were used as control and were kept in cell culture conditions without EMR exposure. Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. The cytosolic ROS production, Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in groups B, C and D than in A group at 0cm, 1cm and 5cm distances although cell viability (MTT) values were increased by the distances. (19 Feb 2015) [AP, BI, CA OS]

13. Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans. Previously published results from a pilot study with carcinogen-treated mice, however, suggested tumor-promoting effects of RF-EMF (Tillmann et al., 2010). We have performed a replication study using higher numbers of animals per group and including two additional exposure levels (0 (sham), 0.04, 0.4 and 2 W/kg SAR). We could confirm and extend the originally reported findings. Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose-response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones (Feb 2015) [TP]

14. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats. This study demonstrated blood-brain barrier and cognitive changes in rats exposed to 900MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) and aims to elucidate the potential molecular pathway underlying these changes. We found that the frequency of crossing platforms and the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant were lower in rats exposed to EMF for 28 days than in rats exposed to EMF for 14 days and unexposed rats. Moreover, 28 days of EMF exposure induced cellular edema and neuronal cell organelle degeneration in the rat. In addition, damaged BBB permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation were observed in the hippocampus and cortex. Thus, for the first time, we found that EMF exposure for 28 days induced the expression of mkp-1, resulting in ERK dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway. (15 Jan 2015) [BB, GE, CI, MR]

15. Circadian Rhythmicity of Antioxidant Markers in Rats Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields. The potential health risks of exposure to Radiofrequency Fields (RF) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest, such as the adverse effects on the circadian rhythmicities of biological systems. Circadian rhythms in the synthesis of Mel and antioxidant enzymes, GSH-Px and SOD, were shifted in RF-exposed rats compared to sham-exposed animals: the Mel, GSH-Px and SOD levels were significantly decreased when RF exposure was given at 23 and 3 h GMT. The overall results indicate that there may be adverse effects of RF exposure on antioxidant function, in terms of both the daily antioxidative levels, as well as the circadian rhythmicity. (12 Feb 2015) [BI, CR, OS]

16. Comparison of the Genotoxic Effects Induced by 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in GC-2 Cells Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.  (17 Feb 2015) [DD]

17. The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development. A control group and an EMF-exposed group. The study group was exposed to 900-MHz of EMF during the first 20 days of pregnancy, while the control group was unexposed to EMF. Mild congestion and tubular defects, and dilatation of Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues of rats in the exposed group. Apoptosis was evaluated using anti-caspase-3; stronger positive staining was observed in the renal tubular cells in the study group than those of the control group. Although there was a significant difference between the study and control groups in terms of K(+) level (p < 0.05)  (Mar 2015)          [AP, CI]

18. Radiofrequency signal affects alpha band in resting electroencephalogram. Results: Compared with sham session, the exposure session showed a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease of the alpha band spectral power during closed eyes condition. This effect persisted in the post-exposure session (p < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected in electrode impedance, salivary cortisol and caffeine in the sham session when compared to the exposure one. Conclusions: These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of a mobile phone affect alpha band within spectral power of resting human EEG. (18 Feb 2015)

19. Long term and excessive use of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation alter microRNA expression in brain. Rats in the exposure group were exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation for 3 h per day (7 days a week) for 12 months (one year). Results: Results revealed that long-term exposure of 900 MHz RF radiation only decreased rno-miR107 (adjP* = 0.045) value where the whole body (rms) SAR value was 0.0369 W/kg. However, our results indicated that other microRNA evaluated in this study was not altered by 900 MHz RF radiation. Conclusion: 900 MHz RF radiation can alter some of the miRNA, which, in turn, may lead to adverse effects.  (27 Jan 2015) [GE]

20. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure effects on antioxidant enzymes and liver function tests. Rats exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz) or to the radiofrequency field of a mobile phone (900 MHz) showed significantly decreased enzyme activities of the glutathione peroxidase and the superoxide dismutase when compared to the control, while the enzyme activity of the catalase and the lipid peroxidation were significantly increased. Additionally, all liver values in the serum of exposed rats (microwave or mobile phone) were significantly increased in comparison to the control group.
The authors conclude that exposure to microwaves (2.45 GHz) or to the radiofrequency field of a mobile phone (900 MHz) could lead to oxidative stress in the liver and to increased liver values in rats. [EA, OS]

21. The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats. The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes. [CI]

22. Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring. Brain and liver glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as liver vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations decreased in the EMR groups, although brain iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations increased in the EMR groups. In the 6th week, selenium concentrations in the brain decreased in the EMR groups. There were no statistically significant differences in glutathione, vitamin E, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc concentrations between the three groups. Conclusion: EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring. Mobile phone-induced EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats. [BI, EA, OS]

23. Long term and excessive use of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation alter microrna expression in brain. Results revealed that long term exposure of 900 MHz RF radiation only decreased rno-miR107 (adjP*= 0,045) value where the whole body (rms) SAR value was 0.0369 W/kg. However, our results indicated that other micro RNAs evaluated in this study was not altered by 900 MHz RF radiation. Conclusion: 900 MHz RF radiation can alter some of the miRNAs, which, in turn, may lead to adverse effects. [EA, GE]

24. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility. [OS, DD, SE]

25. Immunohistochemical localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the superior olivary complex of mice after radiofrequency exposure. Protein expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly reduced in all examined brain areas in the exposure group compared to the sham exposure group. The authors conclude that exposure of mice to an 835 MHz electromagnetic field could have an effect on the protein expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor in the central auditory system, which in turn might affect its function. (3 Apr 2014) [EA]

26. Evaluation of oxidant stress and antioxidant defense in discrete brain regions of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiation. Altered behavioural performances were found in RF-EMR-exposed rats. Additionally, elevated TBARS level was found with all brain regions studied. RF-EMR exposure significantly decreased TA in the amygdala and cerebellum but its level was not significantly changed in other brain regions. GST activity was significantly decreased in the hippocampus but, its activity was unaltered in other brain regions studied. RF-EMR exposure for a month induced oxidative stress in rat brain, but its magnitude was different in different regions studied.   [OS, BM, EA]

27. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands. Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.   [BI, OS, EA, AP, CI, EM]

28. Pathological effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat kidney. Light microscopy revealed some degenerative changes in the tubule epithelium, small cystic formations in the primitive tubules and large cysts in the cortico-medullary or medullary regions in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed a loss of peritubular capillaries and atypical parietal layer epithelial cells in the experimental group. Biochemical analysis showed significantly increased MDA levels in the experimental group and decreased SOD and CAT levels. EMF applied during the prenatal period can caused pathological changes in kidney tissue in 21-day-old male rats owing to oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels.   [BI, OS, EA, CI]

29. The effect of prenatal exposure to 900-megahertz electromagnetic field on the, 21-old-day rat testicle. NEMFG rats exhibited irregularities in seminiferous tubule basal membrane and epithelium, immature germ cells in the lumen, and a decreased diameter in seminiferous tubules and thickness of epithelium. Apoptotic index, lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation were higher in NEMFG rats than in NCG. 21-day-old rat testicles exposed to 900-MHz EMF in the prenatal term may be adversely affected, and this effect persists after birth.   [BI, OS, DD, CI]

30. Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-days exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation. Heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1 and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress were identified. These results demonstrate significant effects of radio-frequency modulated electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure on proteome, particularly in protein species in the rodent testis, and suggest that a 30 d exposure to EMF radiation induces non-thermal stress in testicular tissue.  [BI, OS, EA]

31. Effects of microwaves (950 MHZ mobile phone) on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis. This study showed that the microwaves with the frequency of 950 MHz can have negative impacts on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis.    [CI, AP]

32. Selenium Reduces Mobile Phone (900 MHz)-Induced Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function, and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells Exposure to mobile phone-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may affect biological systems by increasing free oxygen radicals, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels although selenium may modulate the values in cancer.   [BI, OS, AP, EM]

33. Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain. Discussion: Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning. (Dec 2014)  [BI, OS, CI, BM, MR]

34. Biochemical Modifications and Neuronal Damage in Brain of Young and Adult Rats After Long-Term Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiations. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level were enhanced, whereas no DNA fragmentation was detected. The relative brain weight of young rats was greatly affected, and histopathological examination reinforced the neuronal damage. The study highlights the detrimental effects of mobile phone radiations on brain during young and adult ages. The interaction of these radiations with brain is via dissipating its antioxidant status and/or triggering apoptotic cell death.  [BI, OS, EA, AP]

35. Cell oxidation-reduction imbalance after modulated radiofrequency radiation. Test with 1800Mhz RF exposure. In exposed samples, ROS level significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 10 min of exposure. Decrease in ROS level was observed after 30-min treatment indicating antioxidant defence mechanism activation. In conclusion, under the given laboratory conditions, modulated RF radiation might cause impairment in cell oxidation-reduction equilibrium within the growing cells.  [BI, OS]

36. The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality. The number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group, influenced by electromagnetic radiation, is statistically lower than the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group under no effect. The number of non-progressive movement spermatozoa was significantly higher in the group, which was influenced by cell phone radiation. The DNA fragmentation was also significantly higher in this group. A correlation exists between mobile phone radiation exposure, DNA-fragmentation level and decreased sperm motility.   [DD, SE]

37. The effect of radiofrequency radiation generated by a Global System for Mobile Communications source on cochlear development in a rat model. Results: Distortion product otoacoustic emission tests revealed no significant difference among the groups, but electron microscopic evaluation revealed significant differences among the groups with regard to the number of normal, apoptotic and necrotic cells. Conclusion: The findings indicated cellular structural damage in the cochlea caused by radiofrequency radiation exposure during cochlear development in the rat model.   [AP, CI]

38. Effect of exposure and withdrawal of 900-MHz-electromagnetic waves on brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in male rats. In conclusion, electromagnetic field emitting from mobile phone might produce impairments in some biochemicals changes and oxidative stress in brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal.  [BI, OS]

39. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells. Results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells    [BI, OS, DD, AP]

40. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring. Exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats    [BM, MR]

41. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload. No significant differences regarding learning and memory were observed in the Morris water maze and eight-arm radial maze between the groups. However, exposed rats from group 1 (electromagnetic field) and group 2 (electromagnetic field + iron) showed significantly impaired results in the object exploration test in comparison to the sham exposed rats.  (1 Jan 2014)  [BI, OS, BM]

42. Study of Oxidative Stress in Human Lens Epithelial Cells Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields - In all exposed cell cultures, the level of reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation were significantly increased compared to the corresponding sham exposed cell cultures, while the cell viability, the gene expression and the protein expression were significantly decreased.    [BI, OS, GE]

43. Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin. The levels of DNA damage were significantly increased following exposure to MPR in the listen, dialed and dialing modes.    [DD]

44. Circadian alterations of reproductive functional markers in male rats exposed to 1800 MHz radiofrequency field. Via these measurements, we confirmed the existence of circadian rhythms in sham-exposed animals. However, rats exposed to RF exhibited a disruption of circadian rhythms, decreased testosterone levels, lower daily sperm production and sperm motility, down-regulated activity of γ-GT and ACP, as well as altered mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 and StAR. All of these observations were more pronounced when rats were exposed to RF at ZT0. Thus, our findings indicate potential adverse effects of RF exposure on male reproductive functional markers, in terms of both the daily overall levels as well as the circadian rhythmicity.    [CR, SE, GE, EA]

45. Investigation of the Effects of 2.1 GHz Microwave Radiation on Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (ΔΨ m), Apoptotic Activity and Cell Viability in Human Breast Fibroblast Cells. The results of this study showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation-induced apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway.  [AP, ME]

46. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxic damage in immature and mature rats exposed to 900 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic fields. The exposure of RF-EMF leads to cytotoxic and genotoxic damage in immature and mature rats. More sensitive studies are required to elucidate the possible carcinogenic risk of EMF exposure in humans, especially children.  [DD, AP, CI]

47. Effect of low level microwave radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of 900 MHz MW radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in blood of Fischer rats. Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content in blood. Thus, the study demonstrated that low level MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable of leading to oxidative stress.  [BI, OS, BM]

48. Effects of intensive cell phone (philips genic 900) use on the rat kidney tissue. Considering the damage in rat kidney tissue caused by EMR-emitting cell phones, high-risk individuals should take protective measures.  [CI]

49. Effect of 950 MHz UHF Electromagnetic radiation on biomarkers of oxidative damage, metabolism of UFA and antioxidants in the liver of young rats of different ages. For rats of 30 days, no OS, but it is genotoxic to the livers of ER to total body irradiation.  [DD]

50. Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-à-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats. Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 30 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. We concluded that low SAR microwave radiation exposure at these frequencies may induce DNA strand breaks in brain tissue.   [DD]

51. Stimulation of the brain with radiofrequency electromagnetic field pulses affects sleep-dependent performance improvement negatively. Pulse-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF, carrier frequency 900 MHz) are capable to modulate these electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of sleep. The changes in the time course of SWA during the exposure night may reflect an interaction of RF EMF with the renormalization of cortical excitability during sleep, with a negative impact on sleep-dependent performance improvement.    [SP]

52. The exposure of adult rats to EMR may cause disturbances in monoamine neurotransmitters and this may underlie many of the adverse effects reported after EMR including memory, learning, and stress. Adult rats were exposed daily to EMR (frequency 1800 MHz). The exposure of adult rats to EMR may cause disturbances in monoamine neurotransmitters and this may underlie many of the adverse effects reported after EMR including memory, learning, and stress.  (Jul 2013)  [BI, BM, MR]

53. Exposure to 1800MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Induces Oxidative DNA Base Damage in a Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line. The authors conclude that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields causes a DNA damage in male germ cells via oxidative stress.  [OS, DD]

54. Effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on oxidative stress in rat brain and serum. Our results suggest that there is a significant increase in brain lipid and protein oxidation after electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure and that garlic has a protective effect against this oxidative stress.  [BI, OS, EA]

55. Effect of 3G Cell Phone Exposure with Computer Controlled 2-D Stepper Motor on Non-thermal Activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK Stress Pathway in Rat Brain. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain.  [OS, DD, EM, EA, AP]

56. Effect Of Microwave Radiation On The Retina Of Mice Embryos. Exposure to a frequency of 950 MHz and exposure to a frequency of 1800 MHz. The mean body length and body weight were significantly decreased when compared to the control group, cells of the retinal tissue lost their normal arrangement and became aggregated in the inner and outer layer of the retina.    [ME, CI]

57. Effect of 900MHz electromagnetic fields emitted from cellular phones on fracture healing: an experimental study on rats. Results of this study demonstrate that EMF at 900 MHz of frequency emitted from cellular phones has a significantly negative effect on bone fracture healing in a rat tibia model.   [RH]

58. The toxic effects of mobile phone radiofrequency (940 MHz) on the structure of calf thymus DNA. Collectively, these experiments indicate that exposure to an electromagnetic radiofrequency field can alter the structure of DNA irreversibly.   [DD]

59. Overproduction of free radical species in embryonal cells exposed to low intensity radiofrequency radiation. The exposure resulted in a significant persistent overproduction of superoxide and nitrogen oxide in embryo cells during all period of analyses. Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells.   [BI, OS, DD]

60. The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after cells were exposed to RF.  [BI, OS]

61. Male reproductive health under threat: Short term exposure to radiofrequency radiations emitted by common mobile jammers. The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples.   [SE]

62. The effects of mobile phones on apoptosis in cerebral tissue: an experimental study on rats. In the study group of 10 rats; mobile phones that spread EMW at a frequency between 1900-2100 MHz. Our results showed that the electro-magnetic waves emitted by the mobile phones may have effect on apoptosis.   [AP, GE]

63. Effect of mobile phone use on salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein of the parotid gland. Salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein were significantly higher on the right side compared to the left in those that predominantly held mobile phones on the right side. In addition, there was a decrease in concentrations of amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase.  [BI, EA]

64. DNA damage but not linked cellular dysfunction. Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions.   [OS, DD]

65. GSM 900 MHz cellular phone radiation can either stimulate or depress early embryogenesis in Japanese quails depending on the duration of exposure. An exposure for 158 hours significantly decreased the number of differentiated somites and resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks compared to the control group. The authors conclude that mobile phone-exposure can stimulate or depress the embryogenesis of Japanese quails and that this effect could depend on the exposure duration. [DD]

66. Transient and cumulative memory impairments induced by GSM 1.8 GHz cell phone signal in a mouse model. One-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant impairments of both types of memory gradually accumulating, with more pronounced effects on the spatial memory. The impairments persisted even 2 weeks after interruption of the 8 weeks daily exposure, whereas the memory of mice as detected by both tasks showed a full recovery approximately 1 month later. [MR]

67. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.            [SE, DD]

68. Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields. RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes  [BI, IN, EA]

69. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells. Neurite outgrowth of eNSC differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg RF-EMF exposure for 3 days. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF exposure. These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs. [GE]

70. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. (March 2013)  [CR, SP]
WiFi (2.4Ghz -  2450Ghz) Exposure Studies

71. EMF radiation at 2450 MHz triggers changes in the morphology and expression of heat shock proteins and glucocorticoid receptors in rat thymus. The thymus tissue presented several morphological changes, including increased distribution of blood vessels along with the appearance of red blood cells and hemorrhagic reticuloepithelial cells. Levels of Hsp90 decreased in the thymus when animals were exposed to the highest power level (12 W), but only one group did not show recovery after 24 h. Hsp70 presented no significant modifications in any of the groups. The glucocorticoid receptors presented greater immunomarking on the thymic cortex in exposed animals. (15 Apr 2015) [CI, EA]

72. EFFECTS OF 2.4 GHz RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION EMITTED FROM WI-FI EQUIPMENT ON microRNA EXPRESSION IN BRAIN TISSUE. The results revealed that long term exposure of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation can alter expression of some of the miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p (adjP* = 0,010) and miR-107 (adjP* = 0,005). We observed that mir 107 expression is 3.3 times and miR-106b-5p expression is 3.65 times lower in the exposure group than in the control group. Long term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNAs expression. (16 March 2015) [GE]

73. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm(2) for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.  (2015) [CI, IN]

74. Experimental analysis of HSP 90 and 70 in-vivo changes induced in the thyroid by exposure to microwave electromagnetic fields. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal SAR. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (p0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 or 0.104±5.10-3W/kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There are few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.(2012)  [BI, CI, EA]

75. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90.Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. [CI, CS, GE]

76. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure effects on antioxidant enzymes and liver function tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mobile phone and microwave (MW; 2.45 GHz) radiation on the oxidative status of liver. Result shows that exposure to mobile phone and MW radiations decrease the level of GPx and SOD in exposed group as compared to sham exposed group. While CAT level was found to be increased in exposed group as compared to sham exposed. Meanwhile, elevated level of MDA and changes in liver function parameters were also observed in mobile phone and MW-exposed groups by comparing to control ones. The study concludes that the chronic exposure to these radiations adversely affect the liver functioning and may be an indication of possible tumour promotion due to significant (P<0.05) changes occur in antioxidative enzymes. [BI, EA, OS, TP]

77. Increased DNA oxidation (8-OHdG) and protein oxidation (AOPP) by Low level electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in rat brain and protective effect of garlic. Conclusions: It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz MWR increases the DNA damage in both brain tissues and plasma of the rats whereas it increases protein oxidation only in plasma. It may also be argued that the use of garlic decreases these effects.  [BI, OS, DD]

78. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation. Pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shrivelled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shrivelled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.   [CI]

79. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca2+ channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca2+ influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca2+ influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.   [BI, OS, AP, CA]

80. Effects of olive leave extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals.  Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues.  [OS, GM]

81. The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats. Exposure to 2450 MHz EMF, particularly in the prenatal period, resulted in postnatal growth restriction and delayed puberty in female Wistar rats. Increased TOS and OSI values in the brain and ovary tissues can be interpreted as a sign of chronic stress induced by EMF. [OS]

82. Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring. In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats.  [BI, OS, CI]

83. Replication of heart rate variability provocation study with 2.4-GHz cordless phone confirms original findings. Of the 39 participants who claimed to experience some electrical hypersensitivity, 36% claimed they also reacted to a cordless phone and experienced heart symptoms and, of these, 64% were classified as having some degree of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) based on their HRV response. Novel findings include documentation of a delayed response to radiation.   [HR]

84. Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect. We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility.   [DD, SE]

Epidemiological/Case Studies (Mobile Phone, Radar, etc.)

85. Use of mobile phone during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion. All data pertaining to mobile phone use such as average calling time per day, the location of the mobile phones when not in use, use of phones for other applications, SAR and the average of the calculated effective SAR, except the use of hands-free devices were different between the case group and the control group. A significant association between the calculated effective SAR and the risk of spontaneous abortions was observed (OR 1.11; CI 1.07-1.16). The results suggest that use of mobile phones could be related to the early spontaneous abortions. (21 Apr 2015) [MC]

86. Association between mobile phone use and self-reported well-being in children: a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in Chongqing, China. 746 (94.1%) valid questionnaires were received. Fatigue was significantly associated with the years of MP usage (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.22) and the daily duration of MP calls (OR 2.98; 95% CI 1.46 to 6.12). Headache was significantly associated with the daily duration of MP calls (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.23 to 6.57). However, after adjusting for confounders only, the association between fatigue and MP usage remained statistically significant. There was no significant association between MP use and other physical symptoms in children. (11 May 2015) [FA, HA]

87. The semen quality of the mobile phone users. To evaluate the conventional and some of the main biofunctional sperm parameters in healthy men according to the different use of the mobile phone. All the enrolled subjects in this study were divided into four groups according to their active cell phone use: group A= no use (no.=10 subjects); group B= <2 h/day (no.=16); group C= 2-4 h/day (no.=17); and group D= >4 h/day (no.=20). Among the subjects of the group D (>4 h/day), a further evaluation was made between the "trousers users"(no.=12) and "shirt users"(no.=8), None of the conventional sperm parameters examined were significantly altered. However, the group D and the trousers users showed a higher percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation compared to other groups. (26 Dec 2013)  [DD]

88. Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A). The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use. In CERENAT, exposure to RF EMF from digitally enhanced cordless telephones (DECTs), used by over half the population of France during the period of this study, was not evaluated. If exposures to DECT phones could have been taken into account, the risks of glioma from mobile phone use in CERENAT are likely to be higher than published. We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (